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Survey of Industrial/Organizational Psychology Course Information

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PSY 3542  Survey of Industrial/Organizational Psychology

Course Description

Surveys the application of psychological principles and methods to work. Includes employee selection, motivation, performance and behavior; the structure and function of occupational positions and activities; and the nature, processes and development of organizations.

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to

  • Trace the history of I/O
  • Explain what I/O psychologists do
  • Apply research methods to I/O topics
  • Describe various approaches to job analysis
  • Describe the issues involved in criterion measurement
  • Describe the role of I/O psychology in performance appraisal
  • Identify various predictors of job performance
  • Explain the processes involved in validating and using selection tests
  • Discuss the implications of employment law in various I/O functions
  • Explain the processes involved in training development and evaluation
  • Apply theories of motivation to workplace behavior
  • Describe the antecedents and consequences of various job attitudes
  • Describe the stressor-strain relationship
  • Describe the policies employed by organizations to reduce work-life conflict
  • Discuss the role of groups and work teams in organizations
  • Apply theories of leadership to understand the antecedents and consequences of leader behavior
  • Explain various organizational theories
  • Describe the processes involved in organizational change

Week 1

Lecture: Introduction

Lecture: Course Overview: Lecture: I-Psychology versus O-Psychology

Outcomes

  • Define industrial-organizational psychology
  • Describe the differences between industrial psychology and organizational psychology, and explain why the distinction is a somewhat false dichotomy
  • Explain the scientist-practitioner model for training I-O psychologists
  • Explain how World War I, World War II, and the civil rights movement furthered I/O psychology as a field
  • Describe the Hawthorne Studies (what they were studying and what they found) and explain how these studies influenced I/O psychology
  • Discuss several business trends impacting today’s organizations and their implications for I/O psychology

Week 2

Lecture: O*Net

Lecture: Theory and ESM 

Outcomes

  • List and describe the steps in the research process; explain what happens at each step
  • Explain the role of theory in science
  • Explain how Affective Events Theory exemplifies the induction and deduction processes
  • Recognize and provide examples of independent and dependent variables
  • Define extraneous variable (also called a confound); explain how psychologists control for these variables
  • Explain the concepts of internal and external validity
  • Explain how experimental research differs from other research methods
  • Compare and contrast laboratory research vs. field research; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Describe experience sampling methodology and some of the decisions involved in such a study
  • Define and be able to distinguish between reliability types
  • Explain the difference between concurrent and predictive validity; explain how a study would be designed to assess each type
  • Distinguish between the different measures of central tendency
  • Distinguish between the different measures of dispersion
  • Describe the normal distribution
  • Interpret Pearson’s correlation coefficients
  • When shown a scatterplot, estimate the strength and direction of the correlation
  • Explain the purpose of a meta-analysis
  • Explain why job analysis is considered the foundation of Industrial Psychology (Explain when job analysis is used.)
  • Describe and distinguish between job-oriented and worker-oriented approaches to job analysis; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each approach
  • Define and explain the role of a subject matter expert
  • Explain how you would conduct a job analysis using the Task Inventory Approach, Functional Job Analysis (FJA) Approach, Job Element Method, Position Analysis Questionnaire, and Common-Metric Questionnaire
  • Describe the Dictionary of Occupational Titles, and discuss how O*NET has improved upon it
  • Describe the content of O*NET, and explain why it represents a “hybrid” approach to job analysis; describe how the data is gathered
  • Define and describe each of the following three outcomes of job analysis: job evaluation, job description, and job specifications. What is the purpose of each?
  • Explain the steps involved in using the point system approach to job evaluation; discuss how this system is complicated by the labor market
  • Explain the Doctrine of Comparable Worth

Week 3

Lecture: The Criterion Problem

Outcomes

  • List the different uses of performance appraisal
  • Discuss the possible consequences of a poorly designed performance appraisal
  • Explain how performance management differs from performance appraisal; describe the components of a performance management system
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different appraisal formats (graphic rating scales, BARS, checklists, and employee comparison methods)
  • Explain the steps involved in developing a behaviorally anchored rating scale
  • Describe the cognitive processing model of performance appraisal (List the cognitive steps in conducting an appraisal, and describe the errors that can occur at each step)
  • Define the different types of rater errors
  • Explain the concept of true halo
  • Distinguish between rater error training (RET) and frame of reference training (FOR)
  • Discuss how contemporary performance appraisal research differs from the format and error research of the 1980s (Describe some of the current trends in performance appraisal research)
  • Explain why multi-source feedback has become popular (Describe the advantages assumed to come out of multi-source or 360-degree feedback)
  • Describe the aspects of a performance appraisal system that should be in place in order to best protect an organization from a legal standpoint
  • List the different uses of performance appraisal
  • Discuss the possible consequences of a poorly designed performance appraisal
  • Explain how performance management differs from performance appraisal; describe the components of a performance management system
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the different appraisal formats (graphic rating scales, BARS, checklists, and employee comparison methods)
  • Explain the steps involved in developing a behaviorally anchored rating scale
  • Describe the cognitive processing model of performance appraisal (List the cognitive steps in conducting an appraisal, and describe the errors that can occur at each ste.)
  • Define the different types of rater errors
  • Explain the concept of true halo
  • Distinguish between rater error training (RET) and frame of reference training (FOR)
  • Discuss how contemporary performance appraisal research differs from the format and error research of the 1980s (Describe some of the current trends in performance appraisal research.)
  • Explain why multi-source feedback has become popular (Describe the advantages assumed to come out of multi-source or 360-degree feedback.)
  • Describe the aspects of a performance appraisal system that should be in place in order to best protect an organization from a legal standpoint

Week 4

Lecture: Adverse Impact

Lecture: MultipleRegression

Outcomes

  • Distinguish between speed and power tests
  • Distinguish between individual and group tests; explain why group tests are more common for employee selection purposes
  • Distinguish between paper-and-pencil and performance tests; recognize and provide examples of situations in which performance tests might be preferred
  • Understand the different types of tests available for selection to the extent that you can identify relevant tests given a particular employee selection need; for example, discuss the types of tests would be useful for selecting a fighter pilot, administrative assistant, etc.
  • List and define the “big five” dimensions of personality; discuss one major disadvantage to using personality tests in personnel selection
  • Describe the concept of an integrity test and when it’s useful
  • Distinguish between overt and covert integrity tests
  • Explain the concept of an assessment center; describe the exercises often included in assessment centers
  • Compare and contrast application blanks and biodata
  • Distinguish between structured and unstructured interviews, and discuss their usefulness in predicting job performance
  • Discuss the types of questions that should not be asked during employment interviews, and explain why
  • Define realistic job previews, and discuss their role in employee selection
  • Explain why an organization’s selection decisions are only as good as its recruitment process
  • List the two different ways an organization can validate a selection test or selection battery
  • Describe the steps involved in conducting a concurrent validity study
  • Describe the steps involved in conducting a predictive validity study
  • Summarize the two major ways that predictive validation differs from concurrent validation
  • Describe the phenomenon of validity shrinkage; explain how I/O psychologists deal with it
  • Explain Hunter and Schmidt’s (1990) concept of validity generalization and how it differs from the idea of situational specificity; explain the implications of this distinction from a practical standpoint (Explain what it means for an I/O psychologist who wants to validate a selection test/selection battery.)
  • Explain the concept of person-environment fit
  • Distinguish between the multiple cutoff and the multiple regression approach; discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each
  • Describe the multiple hurdle approach, and explain how it saves the organization money
  • List and define the factors that determine the utility of a selection battery (accuracy, validity, base rate, selection ratio, and cost)
  • Explain the “80% rule of thumb” (a.k.a. “four-fifths rule”) for determining whether a selection battery exhibits adverse impact against a particular group
  • Given the selection ratios of the majority and minority groups, use the 80% rule of thumb to determine whether adverse impact exists
  • Describe the steps in an employment discrimination case, explaining the plaintiff’s and defendants’ responsibilities
  • Define affirmative action (AA), and discuss the controversy surrounding them; explain some of the misperceptions surrounding affirmative action programs
  • Describe the two court cases involving the University of Michigan; explain how the two rulings were different, and discuss their implications for selection law
  • Discuss the results of each of the following pieces of legislation: Equal Pay Act, Civil Rights Act, Executive Order 11246, Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Americans with Disabilities Act, Family and Medical Leave Act (Explain which group each piece of legislation protects and when.)
  • Describe the following court cases, and explain how their rulings impact personnel law: Griggs v. Duke Power (1971), Diaz v. Pan Am (1971), Meritor Savings Bank v. Vinson (1986), Martin v. PGA Tour, Inc. (1998)
  • Distinguish between disparate impact and disparate treatment
  • Distinguish between the two forms of sexual harassment; recognize and provide examples of each
  • Describe the concept of a BFOQ; recognize and provide examples of cases where it has been allowed and not allowed
  • Explain the things that a plaintiff must demonstrate in an ADEA case
  • Explain how the concepts of essential functions, reasonable accommodations, and undue hardship relate to the ADA

Week 5

Lecture: Training Evaluation Designs

Outcomes

  • Define training and learning. Discuss the difference between the two
  • Identify and describe each type of training needs analysis. Explain how you would go about performing each analysis
  • List and discuss the five principles of learning.
  • Distinguish between distributed and massed practice; recognize and provide examples of situations in which each type of practice would be effective.
  • Discuss characteristics of the learner and characteristics of the trainer that influence training effectiveness.
  • Define transfer of training, and explain how to increase the likelihood that learning will be transferred to the job
  • Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of each type of training technique
  • Distinguish between physical fidelity and psychological fidelity
  • Explain how most sexual harassment training is conducted, and discuss the research findings regarding its effectiveness
  • List the primary objectives of diversity training
  • Explain Kirkpatrick’s taxonomy of training criteria
  • Explain the major changes that Alliger and colleagues made to Kirkpatrick’s taxonomy
  • Explain how you would go about evaluating a training program using each of the following: pre/post design; pre/post design with a control group; Solomon four-group design
  • Explain the importance of a control group; list and discuss some alternative explanations for a pretest-posttest change (other than the training itself)

Week 6

Lecture: Theories of Motivation

Outcomes

  • Contrast need-motive-value theories, cognitive choice theories, and self-regulation theories of motivation
  • Compare and contrast the different need-motive-value theories
  • List the five core job dimensions proposed by job characteristics theory; explain how these components are said to interact with individual differences (i.e., growth need strength) to influence work motivation
  • Explain equity theory
  • Explain the three main strategies an employee might use to reduce feelings of inequity; discuss the implications of these strategies for work behavior
  • Explain the V-I-E model (expectancy theory); recognize and provide examples of how the theory is applied to work situations
  • List and discuss the major principles and findings with respect to goal-setting theories (e.g.,  why do goals work; what types of goals work best; under what conditions do goals work best)
  • Define self-efficacy, and explain its importance
  • Explain control theory; discuss how human motivation acts similarly to a thermostat under this theory
  • Explain how each of the following interventions applies motivation theories to real-life organizations: Organizational Behavior Management (OBM), Goal Setting and Management by Objectives (MBO), and Job Enrichment
  • Explain the ABC model and how it’s used in OBM
  • List three reasons why it’s important to understand job attitudes
  • Use the theory of planned behavior to explain the role of attitudes in predicting behavior (e.g., explain why attitudes don’t always predict behavior)
  • Use the antecedents of job satisfaction to explain how you would improve job satisfaction in an organization
  • List three popular measures of job satisfaction, and briefly describe them
  • Discuss the outcomes of job satisfaction
  • Explain the variables that influence attendance/absence other than job satisfaction
  • List and define the three components of organizational commitment according to Meyer and Allen
  • Explain what determines a person’s commitment to their organization
  • Discuss the outcomes of organizational commitment
  • Define emotional labor, and explain its positive and negative consequences in organizations

Week 7

Lecture: Emotions in the Workplace

Outcomes

  • Distinguish between stress and strains
  • Describe the 21st–century changes that have so many Americans “working scared” according to Wexley and. Silverman (1993)
  • Define role ambiguity and role conflict
  • List and describe the three major types of strain
  • Define burnout, and list the three characteristics that comprise it
  • Distinguish between problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping; recognize and provide examples of each
  • Identify the five determinants of well-being that map onto dimensions in job characteristics theory; define each of these determinants
  • Define work-family conflict and work-family enrichment; recognize and provide examples of each
  • Identify at least three traditional work-life benefits and at least three non-traditional work-life benefits offered by organizations
  • Discuss the particular complexities faced by dual-earner couples
  • Describe how job loss affects Warr’s determinants of well-being
  • List the risk factors associated with being assaulted at work
  • Describe the profile of a “lethal employee”
  • Contrast ability models of emotional intelligence with mixed models; describe the four dimensions that make up the ability model
  • Describe Affective Events Theory
  • Explain the concepts of emotional labor, display rules, and emotional dissonance
  • Distinguish between surface acting and deep acting, and explain their differential outcomes
  • Compare formal and informal groups; list the four functions that informal groups serve
  • Identify and define four main types of social influence in groups
  • Describe the five stages of group development according to Tuckman’s model
  • Compare and contrast the stage model from the punctuated equilibrium model of group development
  • Define social loafing, and discuss the conditions under which group members are less likely to engage in it
  • Describe the five steps to effective group decision making, and identify common mistakes that are made at each step
  • Describe three ways in which the effectiveness of brainstorming is reduced
  • Describe four common approaches to choosing solutions in groups
  • List the three main symptoms of group think
  • Discuss how group think might be eliminated or prevented
  • Identify three types of work teams; recognize and provide examples of each
  • Define self-managed work team, and explain some of the processes involved in their success
  • List the three main dimensions of work team effectiveness
  • Distinguish between taskwork and teamwork
  • Identify and describe trends in the use of work teams in organizations

Week 8

Lecture: Organizational Culture and Culture Change

Outcomes

  • Explain the differences in the definitions of leadership vs. effective leadership
  • Identify and define French and Raven’s five major bases of power; recognize and provide examples of each
  • Describe and contrast the three early approaches to leadership research
  • Distinguish between initiating structure and consideration. Recognize and provide examples of each; for each, discuss the types of situations in which that leader behavior would be most effective
  • Discuss the kinds of contingencies that affect leadership processes
  • Identify and describe the four kinds of leader behaviors mentioned in path-goal theory
  • Describe the following three contemporary leadership theories: Leader-Member Exchange Theory (LMX), Implicit Leadership Theory (ILT), and Transformational Leadership Theory
  • Explain the concept of a glass ceiling
  • Describe two major findings from Eagly’s research on gender and leadership
  • Explain why culture is an issue in leadership research; explain the differences that have been found when comparing leadership across cultures
  • Describe the GLOBE project; explain what researchers want to demonstrate with this research project
  • Define organizational theory
  • List the four basic tenets of classical organizational theory
  • List the four principles of scientific management; describe a project conducted by Frederick Taylor that exemplifies this approach
  • List and define the four major features of a bureaucratic organization
  • Describe the main differences between a Theory X manager and a Theory Y manager
  • Explain the open-system theory of organizations
  • Define organizational development; discuss the important characteristics that most OD programs share
  • List the three major phases in Lewin’s change model; describe what happens at each phase
  • Describe how the action research model of change is an extension of Lewin’s previous work
  • Describe the five steps involved in survey feedback
  • Identify six objectives of team-building interventions
  • Explain how one would implement a total quality management system
  • Describe gainsharing
  • Compare and contrast functional, product-based, and matrix-based organizational designs
  • Define appreciative inquiry, and explain how it is an example of positive psychology
  • Define and recognize examples of culture change
  • Define and recognize examples of knowledge management
  • Define organizational culture according to Schein; recognize and be able to give examples of each of the three levels of culture
  • Explain the two functions of culture, according to Schein
  • Identify two different ways to measure culture
  • Explain why organizational culture is so difficult to change, and list the steps involved in a culture change initiative

The course description, objectives and learning outcomes are subject to change without notice based on enhancements made to the course. April 2012