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Lifespan Development and Psychology

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PSY 2000 Lifespan Development and Psychology

Course Description

This course surveys the various psychological, biological, and other interdisciplinary areas of human development. This course also covers changes over the entire human lifespan.

Course Objectives

Upon completion of this course, students should be able to 

  • Explain the basic issues in developmental study and the methods of research
  • Identify and explain the major developmental theories
  • Demonstrate an understanding of genetics, prenatal development, and childbirth
  • Trace the physical, cognitive, personality, emotional, social, and moral development of children and adolescents
  • Explore the issues faced by adolescents and young adults in making decisions regarding careers and marriage
  • Demonstrate an understanding of physical, cognitive, emotional, and social development of early and middle adulthood
  • Explore the physical, emotional, and psychosocial problems related to the normal aging process
  • Examine the role of work and the issues of retirement
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the changes in physical and cognitive functioning in late adulthood
  • Examine current theories of personality development in late adulthood and theories of successful aging
  • Examine attitudes towards death, preparation for one's own death, care of the dying, and bereavement

Week 1

Lecture: Introduction

Lecture: Research Issues in Development

Outcomes

  • Define Human Development
  • Explain how one's genes (nature) and one's environment (nurture) interact with each other to influence development
  • Explain the difference between continuous and discontinuous development and be able to give examples of both types of development
  • Compare the difference between context-specific and universal development
  • Explain the biopsychosocial framework
  • List and describe the two purposes of developmental theories
  • Describe how one moves through Erikson's stages of psychosocial development
  • Discover the principles of operant conditioning, reinforcement, and punishment as they relate to behaviorism
  • Explain how social learning theory differs from behaviorism
  • Describe how children make sense of the world, according to Piaget
  • Describe how information-processing psychologists explain developmental changes in thinking
  • Describe the four levels Bronfenbrenner uses to divide the environment
  • Describe the four key features of the lifespan perspective
  • Recognize the importance of selection, compensation, and optimization to aging
  • Explain why a researcher would choose to use a naturalistic observation and a structured observation
  • Discuss why an investigator might choose to sample behavior with a task
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of self-reports
  • Explain reliability and validity
  • Explain the importance of a representative sample
  • Describe how correlational studies are conducted
  • Explain the difference between an independent and dependent variable
  • Describe the difference between an experimental and a control group in a research experiment
  • Describe a longitudinal research design and its advantages and disadvantages
  • Describe a cross-sectional research design and its advantages and disadvantages
  • Define the cohort effect
  • Describe sequential research designs
  • List and describe the guidelines for ethical research
  • Explain how research results are communicated and applied

Lecture: Prenatal Development

Lecture: Labor and Delivery

  • Describe what happens to the red blood cells in sickle cell anemia and why these changes have negative effects
  • Explain the difference between autosomes and sex chromosomes
  • Describe how genes and the chemical compounds adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine are related
  • Contrast genotype and phenotype
  • Describe different variations of genes called alleles
  • Explain the difference between being homozygous and heterozygous for a particular trait
  • Recognize the difference between dominant alleles, recessive alleles, and codominance
  • Define behavioral genetics
  • Describe polygenic inheritance
  • Describe how disorders involving recessive and dominant alleles are inherited
  • Describe how extra autosomes or abnormal sex chromosomes may influence development
  • Describe the difference between monozygotic and dizygotic twins
  • Describe how studying twins and adopted children can tell us about the influence of heredity and environment on development
  • Describe some of the problems associated with twin and adoption studies
  • Describe how one's genes and environment may interact, in cases such as those involving phenylketonuria, to influence development
  • Explain what the range of reaction is and its relation to development
  • Describe the three types of relations between heredity and the environment
  • Explain the importance of nonshared environmental influences on development
  • List and describe the three periods of prenatal development, the timing of each period, and the major developmental events associated with each period
  • Describe in vitro fertilization and how reproductive technologies are related to eugenics
  • Explain how maternal age can affect prenatal development
  • Describe how maternal nutrition is related to prenatal development
  • Explain how maternal stress affects prenatal development
  • Describe the effects of thalidomide on prenatal development
  • Explain the effects associated with alcohol consumption by the mother during pregnancy
  • Describe how ingesting PCBs affects prenatal development
  • List the five general principles concerning the effects of teratogens on prenatal development
  • Describe how genetic counseling can help prevent some inherited disorders
  • Describe the procedures used in ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling and the kind of information each provides about prenatal development
  • Describe how various problems of prenatal development can be treated with administration of drugs to the fetus, fetal surgery and genetic engineering
  • List and describe the events associated with the three stages of labor
  • List some of the benefits associated with prepared childbirth classes
  • List the benefits of giving birth at home or in a birth center
  • Describe the problems associated with anoxia, prematurity, and low birth weight
  • Explain the high incidence of infant mortality in the United States

Week 2

Lecture: The Memory System – Part 1

Lecture: The Nervous System

Outcomes

  • Describe the four functions of various reflexes in the newborn
  • List the components of the Apgar scale and describe what the scale tells us about the newborn
  • Describe the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale and explain what it evaluates
  • List and describe the four states that are found in the newborn
  • Describe the three types of cries and ways to soothe a crying baby
  • Describe the pattern of REM and non-REM sleep found in the newborn
  • Discuss the possible function of REM sleep in infants
  • Explain the most common reason for bedtime struggles with preschool children
  • Describe SIDS and the Back to Sleep campaign
  • List and describe the three dimensions of temperament
  • Describe the contributions of heredity and the environment to temperament
  • Describe the pattern of growth that is seen in children from birth to three years of age
  • Explain how heredity influences a child's height and weight
  • Describe the advantages of breast feeding
  • Explain what a parent can do to encourage a child to be open minded about food
  • Describe the effects of malnutrition on growth in young children
  • Explain why it is important to combine diet changes and parent training when treating malnutrition in children
  • List and describe the parts of neurons
  • Describe the development of the brain throughout prenatal development and the first few years after birth
  • Describe the functions of the left and right hemispheres of the brain
  • Describe the functions of the frontal lobe and how PET scans provide information about the functions of the brain
  • Explain neuroplasticity
  • Describe some of the important developments that lead to the ability to maintain one's balance and eventually walk
  • Describe the development of fine motor skills from simple grasping in the newborn to the ability to eat with a spoon in a two-year-old
  • Describe the development of handedness from about six months of age until kindergarten
  • Explain how both heredity and environment influence the development of handedness
  • Describe the newborn's sense of smell
  • Describe the sense of taste in the newborn
  • Describe the newborn's sense of touch and pain and how we infer their feelings
  • Describe the infant's perception of pitch, differentiation of speech sounds, and localization of sound
  • Describe the types of things that infants like to look at and explain how these preferences change with age
  • Describe the development of color perception from birth to four months of age
  • Describe the differences in the reactions of 1½-month-olds and 7-month-olds when they are placed on the deep side of the visual cliff
  • Explain how retinal disparity, motion, and sound are used to infer depth
  • Describe how infants perceive objects
  • Explain a study that tells us that infants can integrate information from vision and touch
  • Explain what Jeffrey Pickens's study using the videotapes of the train tells us about infants' ability to integrate vision and hearing
  • Explain the mirror recognition task and what it tells us about children's self-awareness
  • Explain the development of self-concept in preschoolers
  • Explain the development of a theory of mind in preschoolers
  • Explain the false belief task and what it tells us about children's theory of mind

Lecture: Piaget

Lecture: Learning Language

Outcomes

  • Explain Piaget's concepts of scheme, assimilation, and accommodation. Explain how they are related to each other
  • Explain equilibrium and how disequilibrium can result in new ways of thinking
  • Explain what is meant by exercising reflexes during the Piaget's sensorimotor period
  • Define primary circular reactions, secondary circular reactions, and tertiary circular reactions. Explain how they differ from each other
  • Explain what using symbols means and why it is an important achievement for cognitive development
  • Describe how the three-mountains problem demonstrates egocentrism in preoperational children
  • Describe animism in preoperational children
  • Explain centration and how it limits a child’s thinking
  • Describe how irreversibility of thought is demonstrated in the conservation of liquid task using two beakers filled with liquid
  • Explain how preoperational children confuse appearance and reality
  • Explain how language development is related to young children's performance on conservation problems
  • Explain how Baillargeon's research involving possible events and impossible events conflicts with Piaget's description of the timing of object permanence
  • Describe how young children develop naive theories about physics, psychology, and biology
  • Describe the information-processing approach to human thinking. What constitutes a person's hardware and software?
  • Describe what can be done to help young (and older) children pay attention to relevant information
  • Explain the processes by which infants and young children learn
  • Describe the three important features of infants’ memories that were found by Carolyn Rovee-Collier
  • Describe autobiographical memory and how it originates in children
  • Explain the three guidelines that should be followed to help improve the reliability of child witnesses
  • Describe a young infant's ability to distinguish different numbers of objects
  • List and describe the three counting principles that most children have mastered by age three
  • Describe Vygotsky's zone of proximal development
  • Describe how teachers use scaffolding to help the ones they are teaching
  • Describe the process by which private speech becomes inner speech. What function does private speech serve?
  • Define phonemes
  • Describe how an infant's ability to discriminate speech sounds that are not found in her language environments change as she approaches her first birthday
  • Define infant-directed speech and describe how the features of this type of speech might aid language development
  • Define cooing
  • Define babbling and describe how it changes
  • List some early words that are found in young children's vocabularies
  • Define referential and expressive language styles
  • Explain why recognizing words as symbols is important for language development
  • Define fast mapping
  • List and define the three rules that children use to learn new words
  • Define overextensions and underextensions
  • Explain how parents' speech and television are related to children's language growth
  • List and describe the three formulas children commonly use to guide their early word combinations
  • Define telegraphic speech and grammatical morphemes and how they are related to each other
  • Define overregularization and describe how children master irregular aspects of language
  • Explain how biology, language experience, and psychological factors combine to influence language development
  • List and describe the three key elements of effective oral communication
  • Explain how taking turns changes in one-to three-year-olds
  • Describe how preschoolers adjust their messages to listeners' different needs

Week 3

Outcomes

  • Describe Erikson's trust vs. mistrust crisis and explain why establishing trust is important for later development
  • Describe Erikson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt crisis and explain how the resolution of this crisis is related to the development of will
  • Describe how purpose comes from the resolution of initiative vs. guilt
  • Explain the ethological view of attachment
  • Describe the development of attachment from the ability to distinguish people from objects to full-blown attachment to a caregiver
  • Contrast how mothers and fathers interact with their infants
  • Explain the differences between secure attachment, avoidant attachment, resistant attachment, and disorganized/disoriented attachment
  • Describe evidence that supports the view that secure attachment relationships are related to better social relationships later in childhood
  • Describe how parental responsiveness and sensitivity are related to the quality of attachment
  • Describe the effects of quality daycare for preschool children
  • Describe the factors that one should look for when searching for quality daycare
  • Describe the factors that increase the risk of an insecure attachment for infants of working parents
  • List the basic emotions and describe the three elements of basic emotions
  • Describe the development of the basic emotions, both positive and negative
  • Describe stranger anxiety, why it is adaptive, and how it can be reduced
  • Explain the complex emotions and what makes these emotions different from basic emotions
  • Explain the development of recognizing emotions in others and social referencing
  • Describe how play changes from about 15 months to about five years
  • Explain how the ability to use symbols is related to make-believe play
  • Explain how children with imaginary companions differ from those who do not have imaginary companions
  • Explain how different play styles in boys and girls are related to children choosing same-sex playmates
  • Describe how observing cooperative behavior and another child's response to cooperative behavior influence cooperative behavior
  • Explain how parents influence children's play
  • Describe the differences in cooperative behavior between Chinese children and Canadian children
  • Describe how perspective-taking and empathy are related to altruistic behavior
  • Describe the four contextual factors of feelings of responsibility, feelings of competence, mood, and costs of altruism that are related to altruistic behavior
  • Explain how parents' use of reasoning in discipline, modeling altruistic behavior, and use of dispositional praise are related to children's altruistic behavior
  • Define social roles
  • Define gender stereotypes and describe how they influence one's beliefs
  • Describe sex differences in verbal ability, mathematics, spatial ability, social influence, and aggression
  • Describe the ways in which parents treat sons and daughters similarly and differently
  • Describe how peers contribute to sex typing
  • Define gender identity and explain how children develop gender identity
  • Explain how gender identity influences one's perception of others and regulates one's own behavior
  • Describe the development of gender stability and knowledge of sex-typed toys and activities
  • Describe how gender schema influence what information one remembers or how accurately one remembers it
  • Describe how having a gay or lesbian parent influences one's development
  • Describe thought in concrete operational children
  • Describe the types of jokes that children entering the concrete operational period would find funny
  • Describe thinking in formal operational children and describe how their problem-solving approach differs from that of concrete operational children
  • Describe the circumstances under which adolescents are most likely to use deductive reasoning
  • Describe how working memory and long-term memory are related
  • Explain what monitoring is and how it changes with age
  • Explain how identifying the goals and choosing appropriate memory strategies work together to aid remembering
  • Explain what psychometricians do
  • Describe the hierarchical view of intelligence
  • Explain what is meant by linguistic intelligence, logical-mathematical intelligence, spatial intelligence, musical intelligence, bodily-kinesthetic intelligence, personal intelligence, naturalistic intelligence, and existential intelligence
  • Explain what is meant in Sternberg's triarchic theory by the contextual subtheory, the experiential subtheory, and the componential subtheory
  • Explain why the first intelligence test was developed by Binet and Simon
  • Explain the concept of mental age
  • Describe how IQ scores are computed today
  • Explain what is meant by the reliability and validity of a test
  • Explain what is meant by culture-fair intelligence tests
  • Describe the different patterns in intelligence test scores that are found for different racial and ethnic groups, and describe what these patterns mean for individuals within the groups
  • Explain how twin studies provide evidence that heredity influences intelligence
  • Describe the aspects of the environment that are related to higher levels of intelligence
  • Describe the effects of intervention programs like the Carolina Abecedarian Project
  • Describe the typical characteristics of gifted children
  • List and describe the prerequisites of exceptional talent in children
  • Define convergent and divergent thinking and explain the difference between the two
  • Describe the types of home and school environments that nurture creativity in children
  • Describe how mental retardation is determined
  • Define organic mental retardation and familial retardation and explain how they differ
  • Describe the typical living situations and functioning of profoundly and severely retarded individuals
  • Describe the level of functioning of moderately retarded individuals
  • Describe the level of functioning of mildly retarded individuals
  • Describe what is meant by learning disability and describe some of the different types
  • Describe the three symptoms of ADHD and describe the incidence of ADHD in boys and girls
  • Describe two factors that seem to cause ADHD
  • Describe the treatments for ADHD
  • Explain the components necessary for reading
  • Describe the factors related to reading comprehension
  • Describe how writing ability develops
  • Compare the difference found in math ability in Asian and American schoolchildren
  • Describe how American schoolchildren compare to children in other industrialized countries, such as those found in Korea and Japan
  • Explain what literacy means
  • Describe the performance on prose tasks, document tasks, and quantitative tasks of the average high school graduate
  • List and describe the characteristics of effective schools
  • Describe the ways computers can be used in the classroom
  • List and describe the characteristics of effective teachers

Week 4

Outcomes

  • Describe how the degree of parental warmth is related to outcomes for children
  • Explain why moderate levels of parental control are best for children
  • Explain why consistent enforcement of rules is important
  • Define power assertion
  • Describe time out and how it should be used
  • Compare differences in parental warmth and control between parents in the United States, Taiwan, and Taiwanese immigrants to the United States
  • Describe the authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent-permissive, and indifferent-uninvolved parental styles
  • Describe how the various parental styles are related to children's developmental outcomes
  • Explain how a child's behavior is related to parental style
  • Describe how older children may react when a younger sibling is born
  • Describe how the sibling relationship changes over the first few years of life
  • Explain how gender, temperament, age, perceptions of parental treatment, and quality of relationships with parents are related to the quality of sibling relationships
  • Explain the differences in parental expectations for and behavior with first-born and later-born children
  • Describe the differences between first-born, later-born, and only children
  • Describe the mother-child relationship just after two years, six years, and after a divorce
  • Describe the effect of divorce on children and what causes these effects
  • Describe joint custody and the effect of children living with same-sex parents
  • Describe the effects of blended families when mothers have custody of boys and girls during pre-adolescence and adolescence
  • Describe the effects associated with blended families when the father has custody and remarries
  • Define physical abuse, sexual abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect
  • Describe the effects of child abuse for the children
  • Describe cultural, parental, and child factors that are related to an increased likelihood of abuse
  • Describe some things that can be done to reduce the risk of child abuse
  • Describe the developmental changes in friendship according to Harry Stack Sullivan
  • Describe why intimacy and loyalty are important in friendships among adolescents, in general, and adolescent girls in particular
  • Explain how the source of social support changes from age 7 to age 14
  • Describe the characteristics that friends usually have in common
  • Explain the positive consequences associated with having friends
  • Describe how the status of one's crowd is related to self-esteem
  • Explain the three parental practices that are related to adolescents' crowd membership
  • Describe factors that determine which children and adolescents will become leaders of their groups
  • Explain the circumstances under which peer pressure is likely to be most influential
  • Describe popular, rejected, controversial, average, and neglected children and the characteristics that are related to popularity and rejection
  • Describe the consequences of being a rejected child
  • Explain how parental behavior and disciplinary practices are related to a child's rejection by peers
  • Describe how watching TV violence affects children
  • Describe how television portrays women, minorities, and the elderly
  • Explain how television influences children's sex-role stereotypes
  • Describe the view that younger and older children have of television commercials
  • Describe how effective TV commercials are in persuading young children to have their parents buy the advertised products
  • Explain how TV viewing may influence prosocial behavior in children
  • Describe the two factors that seem to restrict the actual impact of TV on prosocial behavior
  • Describe the impact of excessive TV viewing on creativity in children
  • Describe the impact of educational TV programs on children's cognitive development
  • Explain how children's descriptions of others change from the preschool years to adolescence
  • Describe Selman's stages of perspective taking
  • Describe the development of prejudice

Lecture: The Memory System – Part 2

  • Describe when the adolescent growth spurts begin and end for both boys and girls. Also, describe the physical events that occur during the growth spurt
  • Describe the sequence of sexual maturation during puberty in boys and girls
  • Describe how the secular growth trends have changed over the years and give the reasons for these changes
  • Describe how the onset of puberty is influenced by one's genes and experiences
  • Describe the costs and benefits of early maturation for boys and girls
  • Explain the special nutritional needs of adolescents
  • Describe how genes and environment interact to influence juvenile obesity
  • Describe the consequences of being overweight as a child or adolescent
  • Describe the most effective way to treat obesity in adolescence
  • Explain how psychological, sociocultural, and familial influences are related to the development of anorexia and bulimia
  • Describe the advantage of being physically active
  • Explain the effects of participation in organized sports
  • Explain the patterns of accidental death in adolescence
  • Describe the improvements in cognitive processes that occur in adolescence
  • Explain the limitation of adolescent cognitive processing
  • Describe how moral reasoning differs at Kohlberg's preconventional, conventional, and postconventional levels
  • Describe the research on Kohlberg's theory regarding progression through the stages, skipping stages, and regression through the stages
  • Describe the research on the universality of the sequence of Kohlberg's stages
  • Describe research on cultural differences in moral reasoning
  • Explain the difference between Gilligan's view and Kohlberg's view of moral reasoning
  • Describe Eisenberg’s view of moral development
  • Explain the best way to promote moral reasoning in adolescents

Week 5

Outcomes

  • Describe the developmental crisis during adolescence of identity vs. role confusion proposed by Erik Erikson
  • Define adolescent egocentrism, imaginary audience, and the personal fable
  • Describe Marcia's four identity statuses – achievement, moratorium, foreclosure, and diffusion – and the likelihood of occurrence for each status change throughout adolescence
  • Describe how the attainment of Marcia's four identity statuses in adolescents is related to their parents’ styles of parenting
  • Describe the three phases of achieving ethnic identity
  • Describe the ages that boys and girls begin dating and the progression of dating from group dates to well-defined couples
  • Describe the ethnic differences in dating patterns in the United States
  • Describe how peers' and parents' attitudes influence sexual activity in teens
  • Describe how teenage pregnancy is related to poor outcomes for both the teenage mother and her child
  • Explain why adolescents are particularly susceptible to contracting AIDS
  • Describe the frequency with which most teens use contraception and the reasons that they give for not using contraceptive methods
  • Describe the sex ed programs that seem to be the most effective in getting teens to either abstain from sex or to use contraception when they are sexually active
  • Describe how biology might influence one's sexual orientation
  • Explain the challenges faced by gay and lesbian youths
  • Explain the factors that are related to date rape
  • List and describe Super's three phases of vocational choice
  • List and describe Holland's six personality prototypes and how they are related to vocational choice
  • Describe the extent of part-time employment in teens and how part-time employment differs for teens in the United States vs. those in other industrialized countries
  • Describe the three problems associated with part-time employment of teens during the school year in the United States
  • Describe the trends in illicit drug use among teenagers in the United States
  • List the reasons that teens give for drinking alcohol
  • Describe how the attitudes and behavior of family and peers concerning drinking are related to teenage drinking
  • Explain the gender and ethnic differences in causes of death in young adults
  • Describe the negative health effects of smoking and second-hand smoke
  • Describe the health benefits of quitting smoking
  • Describe the possible causes and treatments of depression
  • Name the warning signs of suicide
  • Explain the two types of delinquent behavior described by Moffitt and the causes of each of these types of delinquency
  • Describe the factors that are most likely to lead to successful treatment and prevention of juvenile delinquency
  • Explain how one might teach adolescents social skills that help them avoid delinquent behavior
  • Define role transitions and how they are related to age and feeling like an adult
  • Describe rituals and indicators of adulthood that can be found in non-Western cultures
  • Describe the changes in the age composition of college students in the United States
  • Compare returning adult students to traditional-aged college students
  • Describe the services designed to help students with learning disabilities make the transition from high school to college to the job world
  • Explain how adolescents and adults differ in terms of engaging in reckless behavior
  • Describe Erikson's psychosocial conflict of intimacy vs. isolation and explain how this conflict relates to achieving identity
  • Describe the pattern of behavior for forming an identity and establishing intimacy in both men and women
  • Describe physical functioning in young adults
  • Describe sensory acuity during young adulthood
  • Explain the general, overall health found in young adults in the United States
  • Explain the gender and ethnic differences in health in young adults
  • Describe the negative health effects of smoking and second-hand smoke
  • Describe the health benefits of quitting smoking
  • Describe the possible health benefits associated with moderate consumption of alcohol
  • Describe binge drinking and the effects associated with alcohol addiction
  • Describe the nutritional requirements and eating habits of young adults
  • Explain how dietary fat intake and cholesterol levels are related to cardiovascular disease
  • Describe the link between dietary fat and cancer
  • Describe how income and level of education are linked to health in the United States
  • Describe how men and women differ in health and health behaviors
  • Explain ethnic differences in health
  • Explain what is meant by multidimensional and multidirectional intelligence
  • Explain what is meant by interindividual variability and plasticity in intelligence
  • Define primary mental abilities
  • Describe age differences and cohort differences in primary mental abilities
  • List and describe the variables that are related to a reduced risk of cognitive aging
  • Define secondary mental abilities
  • Explain the difference between fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence and explain how each changes with age
  • Explain how adults' thinking differs from the formal operational thought that is seen in adolescents
  • Describe how thought changes from the time one begins college to the time one graduates from college
  • Define reflective judgment and describe the stages that lead to reflective judgment during young adulthood
  • Describe the importance of emotion and logic throughout adolescence and adulthood
  • Define lifespan. Construct and list the factors that lead to the development of one
  • Define scenario and explain how it is related to a social clock
  • Define life story and explain why distortions may occur in one's memory for autobiographical events
  • Describe possible selves and explain how they motivate behavior
  • Explain how concerns about possible selves change with age
  • Describe the longitudinal research on self-concept across adulthood
  • Explain evidence that supports the view that identity helps shape how we interpret life events
  • Discuss personal control beliefs and explain how they may vary across different domains of one's life

Week 6

Outcomes

  • Explain how friendship and life satisfaction are related
  • Describe the themes underlying adult friendships
  • Describe the differences in men's and women's friendships
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages of cross-gender friendships
  • Describe Sternberg's three components of love: passion, intimacy, and commitment
  • Describe how different forms of love become dominant at different points during the course of a relationship
  • Describe the aspects of love relationships that remain constant across different ages
  • Describe the theory of assortative mating
  • Describe the differences in how men and women fall in love, resolve conflict, and react to dissatisfaction in a relationship
  • Explain the cross-cultural research on the effects of culture and gender on mate selection
  • Describe how socialization influences which characteristics one finds desirable in a mate
  • Describe the continuum of aggressive behaviors that occur in abusive relationships
  • Explain how the causes of aggressive behavior change as the level of aggression changes
  • Describe the situational factors that contribute to aggressive behavior in a relationship
  • List the underlying causes of aggressive behavior for men
  • Describe the two controversial causes of abusive behavior
  • Describe the differences in how men and women view their aggressive behavior
  • Explain the reasons that people remain in abusive relationships
  • Describe how biological, social, and psychological forces interact
  • Describe the factors that are related to the decision not to marry
  • Describe the pattern of social relationships that is typical of singles, particularly single women
  • Describe the characteristics of never-married people
  • Explain how age and socioeconomic status are related to cohabitation
  • Describe how men and women differ in terms of the degree of emotional commitment that is necessary before cohabiting
  • Describe the effects that cohabiting may have on a later marriage
  • Compare sexual expression and interpersonal relations in heterosexual couples with that of gay male and lesbian couples
  • Describe how age at the time of first marriage is related to marital success
  • Define homogamy and explain how it is related to marital success
  • Define exchange theory and describe how it is related to marital success
  • Describe the course of marital satisfaction
  • Describe some of the adjustments that newly married couples must make
  • Describe how level of education and pooling resources are related to marital satisfaction
  • Explain how children affect marital satisfaction
  • Describe husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction during midlife
  • Describe the factors that are related to marital satisfaction in couples during the retirement years
  • Explain the difference between a nuclear family and an extended family
  • Describe the family life cycle model and its limitations
  • Describe the factors that are related to the decision to have children
  • Describe the advantages and disadvantages for couples who decide to remain childless
  • Describe the advantages of being an older mother
  • Compare the parental behavior of men who become fathers in their 20s to men who become fathers in their 30s
  • Describe how most mothers and fathers feel about taking care of children
  • Explain the feelings that are typical of most divorced single parents
  • Describe the problems that single parents face
  • Describe the issues foster parents, adoptive parents, and step parents face
  • Compare the divorce rates in the United States to those found in other industrialized countries
  • Explain how the divorce rate differs for various ethnic groups in the United States
  • List the common reasons that men and women give for getting a divorce
  • Explain how expectations about marriage influence the divorce rate
  • Describe the different approaches states have adopted in response to the high divorce rate
  • Describe the psychological effects of divorce on the divorced couple
  • Describe the different effects of divorce for men and women
  • Describe the effects of divorce for middle-aged and elderly adults
  • Describe the typical situation for a divorced mother with young children
  • Describe the contact that most divorced fathers have with their children
  • Describe how parental divorce affects young adult children
  • Explain how age affects the likelihood of remarriage for both men and women
  • Explain how the relationships of remarried men and women change after remarriage
  • Explain how age at the time of remarriage is related to the happiness of the marriage
  • Explain the many benefits associated with work
  • Define occupational priorities and describe how they differ for different cohorts of workers
  • Describe how feelings about one’s college major and personality are related
  • Describe the problems with Holland’s theory in the way it addresses gender differences, ethnic differences, and age changes across adulthood
  • Describe Super’s implementation, establishment, maintenance, deceleration, and retirement phases of occupational development
  • Describe how occupational expectations are related to forming a dream
  • Describe different factors that are associated with modifying one’s dream
  • Define reality shock and describe how it is related to occupational development and self-concept
  • Describe how mentors are related to occupational success
  • Explain the relation between generativity and mentoring
  • Describe the problems that women have in establishing good mentor relationships
  • Describe the factors that are related to increasing job satisfaction with age
  • Describe the cycle of job satisfaction
  • Describe the factors that are related to feelings of alienation on the job
  • Describe the things that employers can do to prevent feelings of alienation in their workers
  • Define burnout and describe the factors that are related to it
  • Describe the three factors that may help avoid burnout
  • Describe how the socialization of boys and girls is related to their later occupational behavior
  • Describe the personal experiences that are related to women choosing nontraditional occupations
  • Describe the personal feelings that women have about their performance in male-dominated occupations
  • Describe how a woman’s occupation and her level of reported femininity are related
  • Describe the career path that many women take during the 10 years after college graduation
  • Describe the important family and work issues of women who are working part time and those who are working full time
  • Explain how African American women prepare for nontraditional occupations
  • Describe how occupational aspirations are related to ethnicity
  • Describe how ethnicity seems to limit occupational development and advancement
  • Describe how sex discrimination and the glass ceiling influence women’s occupational advancement
  • Define pay discrimination and comparable worth and describe how they are related
  • Describe the gender gap in perceptions of sexual harassment and explain how it is related to the reasonable woman standard
  • Define age discrimination and describe many ways in which it occurs in the workplace
  • Describe the benefits associated with occupational changes
  • Describe the situations that make retraining necessary
  • Describe the importance of retraining of employees to the employer
  • Describe the effects of worrying about one’s job
  • Describe the effects of losing one’s job, particularly for middle-aged men
  • Describe how the effects of losing one’s job differ depending on when during the adult life cycle the loss occurs
  • Describe how ethnicity influences the loss of one’s job and prospects for a new job
  • Describe how attachment to one’s job influences why women return to work after having children
  • Describe the effects on workers of caring for dependents
  • Describe how supervisors’ attitudes are related to work-family conflicts
  • Describe the effects of parental leave on mothers and fathers
  • Explain how dual-worker couples divide household and childcare responsibilities
  • Describe the division of household tasks that men find fair and that women find fair
  • Describe how ethnicity influences the division of household tasks in dual-worker couples
  • Describe how occupational and familial roles are related to each other
  • Describe the factors that are related to the successful combination of family and occupational responsibilities in dual-worker couples
  • Describe how work stress influences family life for both men and women
  • Describe how preoccupations, interests, and activities are related
  • Describe the many factors that influence leisure repertoires
  • Explain what cross-sectional and longitudinal studies tell us about age differences in leisure activities
  • Describe how leisure activities are related to a sense of positive well-being

Week 7

Outcomes

  • Explain the physical changes that cause wrinkles, gray hair, and middle-aged bulge
  • Define osteoporosis and explain the three reasons why it is more common in women than in men
  • Describe the physical changes that occur in women during the climacteric and menopause
  • Describe the two primary sets of symptoms associated with climacteric and menopause
  • Describe ethnic differences in the physical symptoms associated with menopause
  • Describe the risks and benefits associated with hormone replacement therapy
  • Describe changes in men's fertility with age
  • Describe the changes that occur in men's sexual functioning with age
  • Explain the changes in the prostate gland that occur with age
  • Describe how control over one's job is related to stress
  • Describe how reported stress differs by age and gender
  • Describe the stress and coping paradigm
  • Describe how stress is related to one's physical health
  • Define Type A and Type B behavior patterns and explain how both are related to cardiovascular disease
  • Describe how stress and psychological health are related
  • Describe the physiological effects of exercise
  • Describe the psychological effects of exercise
  • Describe changes across adulthood in the reasons why people exercise
  • Define practical intelligence and explain the three ways in which it differs from traditional measures of intelligence
  • Explain the difference between optimally exercised and unexercised abilities and describe the developmental course of both
  • Describe the links between practical intelligence and postformal thinking
  • Describe the differences in the thinking of experts and novices and describe the developmental course of expert performance
  • Define encapsulation and explain how it is related to the ability to explain how one arrives at a particular answer
  • Explain why lifelong learning is becoming the norm
  • Describe the four ways in which adult learners differ from younger learners
  • Describe Costa and McCrae's five dimensions of personality: neuroticism, agreeableness, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and extroversion
  • Describe the evidence that personality traits remain stable across adulthood
  • Describe the criticisms of the five-factor model
  • Explain generativity and stagnation and describe the continuity of generativity across adulthood
  • Describe what generative people are like
  • Describe how gender role identities change over the course of one's lifetime
  • Explain how changes in self-descriptions of gender role are related to changes in behavior across adulthood
  • Define midlife crisis and address whether or not the midlife crisis is universal
  • Define ego resilience and describe the connection between ego resilience and midlife stress
  • Describe the new role of kinkeeper that many middle-aged mothers assume
  • Define what is meant by the sandwich generation
  • Describe how the relationship between parents and children changes as the children move from adolescence to young adulthood
  • Explain how most parents feel when they have an empty nest
  • Describe the two most frequent complaints that middle-age parents have about their young adult children
  • Describe how parents' evaluations of their children are related to their self-evaluations
  • Explain the reasons why adult children return home and the effect on the parent-child relationship
  • Describe the amount of contact that middle-aged children have with their aging parents
  • Describe the gender difference in caring for aging parents
  • Describe the two factors that contribute to negative feelings about caring for one's aging parents
  • Describe the sources of caregiver stress and explain some of the psychological costs of caregiving and why the stress may be more difficult for women
  • Describe the functions of grandparenting
  • Describe the five dimensions of meaning that grandparents assign to their roles
  • Describe ethnic differences in grandparenting
  • Describe how the role of grandparent has changed in recent years

Lecture: Physical, Cognitive, and Mental Health Issues

Outcomes

  • Describe how the shape of the population pyramid has changed since 1900
  • Describe the impact that a large number of older adults, particularly those over age 80, will have on society
  • Describe the composition of the older adult population in terms of gender, ethnicity, and education
  • Describe how the population of third world countries is changing
  • Describe how prepared the United States is for the financial strain of increased numbers of elderly
  • Define the average life expectancy and describe the factors that have led to its increase
  • Define useful life expectancy and maximum life expectancy
  • Describe the genetic factors that are linked to life expectancy
  • Describe the environmental factors that are related to life expectancy
  • Describe ethnic differences in life expectancy
  • Describe the wear-and-tear, cellular, metabolic, and programmed cell death theories of aging
  • Define neurofibrillary tangles and describe why they are a problem
  • Describe the changes in the dendrites that occur with aging
  • Define neuritic plaques and explain why they are a problem
  • Describe how and why the risk of cardiovascular disease changes with age
  • Explain the causes and effects of cerebral vascular accidents
  • Describe the cause and progression of vascular dementia
  • Describe how cerebral vascular accidents and vascular dementia are diagnosed
  • Describe how the respiratory system changes with age and define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  • Describe the causes, symptoms, and treatments for Parkinson's disease
  • Describe the changes that occur in the eye with age
  • Define presbycusis and its causes
  • Describe age-related changes in the sense of smell
  • Describe the consequences of age-related changes in balance
  • Describe the changes that one can make to one's home so that falls are less likely to occur
  • Describe the sleep disturbances that are common in older adults and describe their possible causes
  • Describe the nutritional needs of older adults
  • Describe how the risk of getting cancer changes with age and explain the importance of early detection and screening
  • Describe the age differences in selective attention
  • Describe how age differences on divided attention tasks change as the tasks become more difficult
  • Describe how psychomotor speed and its components change with age
  • Describe how practice and experience influence psychomotor speed
  • Describe the physical changes that affect driving
  • Describe the age-related changes to working memory
  • Describe the typical age differences in recall and recognition on laboratory memory tasks
  • Describe the typical age differences in memory that one finds on real-world memory problems
  • Describe how one's beliefs about one's memory affects memory ability
  • Describe the two steps that someone should take when trying to determine if one is suffering from abnormal memory problems
  • Explain the difference between explicit and implicit memory and internal and external memory aids and describe how the E-I-E-I-O framework combines these types of memory and memory aids
  • Describe the changes in creativity as a function of age and discipline
  • Describe the three cognitive processes that are involved in wisdom
  • Describe the four characteristics of wisdom that Baltes and his colleagues have described
  • Explain how life experiences and empathy are related to wisdom
  • Describe the factors that seem to foster wisdom
  • Describe how depression is diagnosed, particularly in older adults
  • Describe the biological and psychosocial factors that may cause depression
  • Describe the likelihood of becoming depressed at various ages
  • Describe the effects and possible side effects of HCAs, MAO inhibitors and SSRIs when treating depression
  • Describe how behavior therapy and cognitive therapy can be used to treat depression
  • Describe the symptoms associated with anxiety disorders
  • Describe how anxiety disorders are treated, particularly in older adults
  • Describe the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease
  • Describe the progression of Alzheimer's disease
  • Describe how Alzheimer's disease is diagnosed
  • Describe how accurate most spouses' descriptions are concerning the level of impairment found in their spouses
  • Describe how the measurement of levels of amyloid may help in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's
  • Describe the possible causes of Alzheimer's disease
  • Describe how the drugs tacrine, thioridazine and haloperidol are used to alleviate the symptoms associated with Alzheimer's disease
  • Describe how spaced retrieval can be used to improve memory performance in Alzheimer's patients
  • Describe interventions that help reduce the stress of caring for Alzheimer's patients

Week 8

Outcomes

  • Define continuity theory
  • Define competence and environmental press and explain how they are related
  • Define adaptation level, zone of maximum performance potential, and zone of maximum comfort
  • Define proactivity and docility and describe how they are related to competence and environmental press
  • Describe Erikson's crisis of integrity vs. despair and explain how the life review process is related to this crisis
  • Describe the results of research on the relations between the life review process and achieving integrity
  • Describe age differences in possible selves
  • Define Ryff's six dimensions of well-being in adulthood: self-acceptance, positive relations with others, autonomy, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth
  • Describe how older adults and younger adults view their past, present, and future selves
  • Define spiritual support
  • Describe age differences in relying on religion in times of stress
  • Describe the importance of religion and the church in the lives of African Americans
  • Describe the importance of religion in the lives of Mexican and Native Americans
  • Describe how retirement is related to one's occupational identity
  • Contrast a crisp and blurred retirement
  • Describe how financial security and health are related to the decision to retire
  • Describe the main factors that influence a woman's decision to retire
  • Describe ethnic differences in the retirement process
  • Describe the factors that are related to a successful adjustment to retirement
  • Describe the three stereotypes about retirement and explain the research results that refute the stereotypes
  • Describe how marital status is related to satisfaction during retirement for men and women
  • Describe the impact of retirement on the marital relationship
  • Describe the many community activities that are available to retirees
  • Explain the reasons why retirees volunteer in the community
  • Explain the reasons for an increased rate of volunteerism by retirees
  • Describe how the size and amount of social support from friends is related to different generations
  • Describe how number and quality of friendships is related to life satisfaction in older adults
  • Describe the importance of friendships to older women, particularly widows
  • Describe how older adults typically feel about old friends and making new friends
  • Describe the five types of sibling relationships that are found among older adults: intimate, congenial, loyal, apathetic, and hostile
  • Explain how sibling relationships with sisters differ from those with brothers
  • Describe marital satisfaction in older couples
  • Contrast the ways in which older married couples differ from middle-aged married couples
  • Explain how spousal caregiving is related to marital satisfaction and the caregivers' emotional state
  • Describe how feelings of competence affect spousal caregivers
  • Describe who is most likely to be widowed and describe the typical length of widowhood
  • Describe how widowhood affects other social relationships
  • Describe the similarities and differences in how men and women react to widowhood
  • Describe how remarried widows fare emotionally compared to widows who have not remarried
  • Describe the typical characteristics of great-grandparents
  • Describe the three important aspects of great-grandparenthood
  • Define frail, older adults and describe how the proportion of these older adults changes with increasing age
  • Define activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living
  • Describe the prevalence of frailty and explain why the numbers of frail, older adults are increasing
  • Define intermediate care and skilled nursing care
  • Describe the typical nursing home resident and explain why these people are more likely to be in nursing homes
  • Describe the factors that are important in determining if a nursing home is good or not
  • Describe important things one should do when visiting someone in a nursing home
  • Describe the problems associated with defining elder abuse and neglect
  • Describe the prevalence of elder abuse and neglect
  • Describe the two different views of elder abuse victims and perpetrators
  • Describe the identifying characteristics of perpetrators of elder abuse
  • Describe the changes Congress has made on the grounds of intergenerational fairness
  • Describe the political activity of adults over the age of 65
  • Describe how Social Security and Medicare are funded and the problems these programs face with the aging of the Baby Boomers
  • Describe the sociocultural definitions of death
  • Define clinical death and brain death
  • Define persistent vegetative state
  • Define bioethics, euthanasia and active euthanasia, and explain how they are related to each other
  • Describe living wills and durable power of attorney and explain why they are important
  • Define passive euthanasia
  • Describe the bioethical issues that are related to euthanasia
  • Describe the laws in the Netherlands that deal with assisted suicide
  • Describe the influence of cognitive development on how young adults think about death
  • Describe changes in death anxiety across the lifespan
  • Describe Kübler-Ross's five stages of dying: denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance
  • Explain the factors that influence one's progression through the stages of dying
  • Describe the contextual approach to dying
  • Explain how the causes of death and the process of dying differ for people of different ages
  • Describe how the concerns of dying individuals change with age
  • Explain the end-of-life issues
  • Describe the hospice alternative and its goals
  • Describe how one's culture influences one's expressions of mourning
  • Explain how coping is related to the grieving process and list the things people must do in this process
  • Describe the three misconceptions that people may have about the grief process
  • Describe the differences in recovering from an expected death vs. an unexpected death and explain possible reasons for the differences
  • Define grief work and anniversary reaction
  • Describe the results of longitudinal research on older adults' grief work
  • Describe the four component model and dual process model of coping with grief
  • List the factors that distinguish normal grieving from traumatic grieving
  • Describe common problems that are associated with traumatic grieving
  • Describe young children's ideas about death, explain how those ideas change, and explain how this change is related to cognitive development
  • Describe the best way of explaining death to children
  • Describe adolescents' views of death and their concerns about death
  • Describe young adults' feelings about death
  • Explain how middle-aged people feel about death
  • Describe how the death of a child affects parents and grandparents
  • Describe the effects of the death of one's parents
  • Describe older adults' feelings about death
  • Describe the age differences in the negative effects of bereavement on young, middle-aged, and older adults
  • Describe the feelings associated with the death of one's partner
  • Describe the age differences in grieving for one's partner and explain the reasons for these differences
  • Explain how social support affects grieving for one's partner
  • Explain how the rating of one's marriage is related to depression during bereavement
  • Describe how reactions to different types of losses may differ

The course description, objectives and learning outcomes are subject to change without notice based on enhancements made to the course. May 2012